Ferns, Mosses, Horsetails

Characteristics :

Ferns:

  • Have tubes for carrying food and water throughout plant
  • Have roots, underground stems (rhizomes), and leaves (fronds)
  • Leaf cells contain chlorophyll, the pigment for making food
  • Reproduce by using both a single-celled reproductive structure (spore) and a sexual union of egg and sperm cells; may also reproduce by runners; do not make flowers or seeds; must have water in order for sperm to reach egg c
Mosses:
  • Grow upright
  • Have no tube-like structures for carrying food and water, therefore must absorb water from soil and air
  • Do not have true roots, stems, or leaves
  • Reproduce byusing both a single-celled reproductive structure (spore) and a sexual union of egg and sperm cells; do not make flowers or seeds
  • Must have water in order for sperm to reach the egg cell

Horsetails:

  • Have both upright stems and horizontal stems, called rhizomes, that extend along the ground; roots emerge from the rhizomes
  • Upright stems are green and jointed; straw-shaped leaves emerge from the joints forming a whorl
  • Stems cintain crystals of silica, making the plant abrasive
 
Taxanomy:
Classification of ferns, mosses, and horsetails is undergoing restructuring. Listed below is a possible system of classification for these organisms, taken only to the phylum level.
  • Kingdom: Plantae
    • ​​Phylum: Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
      • Class: Anthocerota
    • ​Bryophyta (mosses)
      • ​Andreaopsida (granite mosses)
      • Bryopsida (true mosses)
      • Sphagnopsida (peat mosses)
    • ​Hepatophyta (liverworts)
      • ​Jungemanniidea (similar to moss in appearance)
      • Marchantiopsida (leaf-like in appearance)

Ferns and Fern allies

  • Kingdom: Plantae
    • Phylum: Polypodiophyta (ferns)
      • Class
        • ​Filicopsida (maidenhair ferns, others)
        • Marattiopsida (giant ferns)
        • Ophioglossopsida (graper ferns)
      • ​Lycopodiophyta (club mosses)
        • ​Lycopodiopsida
      • ​Psilophyta (wisk fern)
        • ​Psilopsida
      • ​Equistophyta (horsetails)
        • ​Equisetopsida